Bibliography and Referencing

Bibliographies and referencing are an integral part of producing a presentation, report or essay. They help to demonstrate your ability to research and accurately record the material you use to answer questions.


The bibliography is a written record of the sources you consult – they may be books, chapters, journal articles, web-sites, films, videos or television programmes. Follow the example provided and do not try to invent your own system. All entries should form a single list, ordered alphabetically by author’s last name.


Last Name, Initial., (Year of Publication). Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher.

Fowles, J. (1996). Advertising and Popular Culture. London: Sage.

Kliem, R.L. and Ludin, S. (1995). Stand and Deliver: The Fine Art of Presentation. Aldershot: Gower.

Edited Collection (details of editor must also be included)

Last Name, Initial. (Year of Publication). ‘Chapter Title’, in (ed/s.) Editor’s Surname, Initial. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, pages of chapter.

Gurevitch, M., (1991). ‘The globalization of electronic journalism’, in (eds.) Curran, J. and Gurevitch, M. Mass Media and Society. London: Edward Arnold, pp. 204-224.

Journal Article

Last Name, Initial. (Year of Publication). ‘Title of Article’. Journal Name. Volume, Number, pages.

Bauer-Kaase, P. and Kaase, M. (1996). ‘Five Years of Unification’. German Politics. Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 1-25.

Newspaper Article or Weekly Journal

Last Name, Initial. (Year of Publication). ‘Title of Article’. Title of Newspaper/Journal. Date, pages.

Yates, A. (1996). ‘Is it a bus? Is it a train? No, it’s a juggernaut’. Investors Chronicle. 9 August 1996, pp. 20-21.

‘Declining Britain’ (1996). Sunday Times. 28 July 1996, p. 23

Films and TV

Title, (date). Media and any other relevant information. Production Company.

Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, (1953). Film, dir. Howard Hawks. Twentieth Century Fox.

Father Ted, (1995). Episode 1, ‘Good Luck Father Ted. TV Channel 4, April 2.

Boys from the Blackstuff, (1982). TV BBC2, 10 October-7 November, wr. Alan Bleasdale, dir., Philip Saville, prod., Michael Wearing. BBC Birmingham

Electronic Sources of Information

World Wide Web Page

ASH (1995). Smoking statistics [online]. London: ASH. Available from: [accessed 28 August 1997].

CD Rom

Art of Memory, Trustees of the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Corning Museum of Glass, (1995). The Story of Glass [CD-Rom]. London: Reed Interactive.

Articles from Internet Journals

Author(s) (date). ‘Title of article’. Journal [online]. Volume number, part number. Available from: URL [accessed date].

Brico, G. (1995). ‘Library action lines – tips on keeping your library green’. Electronic Green Journal [online]. Vol. 2, No. 3. Available from: [accessed 17 July 1997].


It is really important to fully acknowledge all the sources of information that you use, otherwise you will be suspected of copying work and attempting to pass it off as your own (plagiarism). Here are some important points about referencing: -

  • Never reference lecture notes. Always return to the original sources.
  • State very clearly any ideas that are your own (“I believe...” or “In my opinion...”)
  • Reference all ideas which are not your own, see the example paragraph facing.
  • When paraphrasing someone’s argument, begin the paragraph by writing “Curran and Seaton (1997) argue that....”, rather than only providing a reference at the end of the paragraph.
  • Only include page numbers when quoting.
  • References should include the authors last name, the date of publication, and in the case of quotes, the page number.
  • If you are quoting an author who appears in another book, you must indicate where you have found them, i.e. (Fiske, 1987, cited in Curran and Seaton, 1997).
  • Remember referencing provides evidence of all the work and research that you’ve done.

There are two instances when references are required within the text: -

  • Direct quotations
    • Text is copied directly from the original source. If it is shorter than three lines it remains within the text, if it is longer than three lines it should be indented and single spaced.

“All of these are obviously antagonistic, anti-feminist attempts to devalue the gains that a very few women have made in social equality” (de Lauretis: 1990: 18).

  • Indirect paraphrase
  • An indirect paraphrase occurs when you condense the main points of a chapter or book.

The paragraph below includes examples of both types of references.

A large body of work exists on women’s sexuality and its construction and misrepresentation in media texts (i.e. Mellen 1973; Singer 1990; Wittenberg & Gooding-Williams 1990; Rapping 1993) yet little research analyses explicit sex scenes in mainstream film. Mellen (1973) mentions briefly that the films she examined do not offer images of women ‘engaged in a mature, mutually satisfying sexual relationship with a male who recognizes her as an individual’ (p. 73) and that film’s ‘sexual daring and [...] obligatory nude scene do nothing to conceal a negative view of women’ (p. 73). Generally research has been ‘more about what is sexy than about sex’ (Smith 1991: 132) and represents a deficiency in the research about the media’s construction of sexuality.

NOTE: This information was given to me by Prof. Finlay (VCC201)